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The Pollera is the most beautiful and admired national costume of the Americas.  There are many tales related about its origin, but the popular opinion is that it was adapted from a gypsy dress worn in Spain at the time of the conquest of Peru and brought to Panama by the servants of the colonial families.  It normally consists of a blouse or shirt and a two-tiered full skirt.

The lavish satins and brocades that made up the dress of society at that time were not suited to the tropical climate and the servants' garb was appropriated by the mistress and enhanced with lace and embroidery.  It was not worn outside of the home but gradually the ladies added more lace and ribbons, ornaments for the hair (tembleques) and jewelry for the neck and eventually it made its way into the public eye.

The experts agree that the ground cloth must be white and the 12 yards of material required can be fine linen, cambric or voile.  The motifs may be formed by birds, flowers, fruit, vines, garlands or native designs.  The height of elegance is achieved when these designs are executed in "talco en sombra" which is hand-sewn appliqué; however, they can be also created in cross stitch or embroidery.  The cost of the gala costumes runs into hundreds and sometimes, thousands of dollars, depending on the hand work involved.

The basic pieces of the pollera are the gown or upper part, the skirt or lower part and the petticoat or underskirt.  The gown or blouse consists of two ruffles, appliquéd or embroidered in favored color and design edged with valencienne lace and gracefully draped from handmade thread lace insertion at the neckline (this blouse is worn off the shoulder.)  Wool is woven in and out of the insertions and two big pom-poms are centered at the chest and back.  The wool must be the same color as the shoes, which are heel-less and made from velvet or satin.

The skirt is two wide pieces ornamented with the chosen motif and joined together with insertion and bordered with insertion and lace.  It is very fully gathered on a waist band.  Four wide ribbons hang from the waist, two in the center front and two in the back--they are called "gallardetes", meaning "graceful streamers".  The petticoat is often as elaborate as the skirt but is always pure white and the trimming is hand-made thread lace.

The ornaments, "tembleques",  for the hair are exquisite.  A large tortoise shell comb embellished with pearls and gold is worn on top of the head and resembles a crown.  This is the key piece and the gold hairpins and tembleques, which are quivering pins and worn in pairs, are placed on the head to give the appearance of a radiant halo.  Two small discs tied to the hair at the temples with black silk thread and large gold filigree earrings with pearls or corals complete the head dress.

The jewelry adorning the neck usually consists of a pearl or coral rosary, a flat gold chain or "cadena chata", a chain of gold coins and a gold cross on a black velvet ribbon worn as a choker.  The jewelry worn with the pollera in the olden days was indicative of one's wealth and sometimes as many as a dozen chains were worn, all of pure gold and precious gems.  A large gold and pearl button or rosetta is worn over the wool pom-pom and a purse suspended from the waistline and fastened with two gold brooches is the finishing touch.

Four days before Ash Wednesday are "carnival" days and La Pollera comes into its own.  The streets are filled with merry makers and each Pollera one sees seems to be more beautiful that the last.  La Pollera has to be seen to appreciate the work and imagination that produces this loveliest of dresses.  The grace and enchantment of the Panamanian women is never more in evidence that when she is wearing La Pollera. ("Living At The Cross Road, A Guide To The Isthmus Of Panama", Imprenta Nacional Panama, R. P., 1957)

*Note:  The Pollera and Tembleques (also hand-made) have undergone a number of inventive changes since this article was printed but the costume remains basically the same.

These breathtakingly beautiful photos pictured on this page are for your enjoyment and to show you the many different  polleras and
tembleques which are normally custom-made for the wearer.  It can take up to a year or more to finish just one whole costume.

Click on all thumbnail photos on this page for a larger view.

"Conjunto Tipico", a group of folklore entertainers dressed in montunos (men) and polleras (women) who sing and dance on festive occasions. (click on thumbnail for a larger view)

 "Independencia" (left) and "Two Polleras" (right) were photographs taken by Ruby Yocum in November 1999 while visiting in Panama City.  It was part of a parade celebrating Panama's Independence Day, similar to our 4th of July.
The above photos may not be copied or reproduced without express permission from the owner. Both of these and many other photos of Panama that will jog your memories can be viewed on their web site


 This beautiful model , Wendy Irizarry, is shown wearing the hair adornments that accompany the wearing of the pollera of Panama.  The three combs are made of gold with gold filigree and pearls.  In her hair she wears sets of tembleques.  Tembleques are made of silver or gold wire strung with different sizes and shapes of pearls and fish scale.  They usually are patterned after a flower or insect such as a butterfly.  Around her neck hangs five traditional gold chains, and also a black velvet necklace with a gold medallion.  Earrings usually match a broach, called a mosqueta, which is worn on the front of the pollera.  The pollera is worn for many fancy functions such as weddings and fiestas.  It is very elegantly embroidered, has different types of lace, and takes about one year to complete.  The pollera is usually finished prior to carnival time in the early spring.  A lady may have two polleras in her lifetime---one prior to the age of 16 and one for adulthood.  The jewelry is handed down from generation to generation. (courtesy of  International Folk Culture Center, San Antonio, TX)

The cute little model to the right is observed wearing colored tembleques, not as common but quite stunning. 

(Photo taken by photographer Everardo Villarreal for a widely-distributed poster in Panama.)

Ex-president of Panama 

(photo by Alvaro Reyes, La Prensa)

Because these photos are quite large and quite old, I have added them as links to better enjoy them.
(I. L. Maduro, circa 1914 and A. Bienkowski, circa 1905)  They show a different style of pollera
that was worn around the turn of the century. (courtesy of Nina K., R. de P.)
La Pollera #1, circa 1905
La Pollera #2, circa 1914
La Pollera #3, circa 1914
La Pollera #4, circa 1914
La Pollera #5, circa early 1900's
La Pollera #6, circa early 1900's

Folklorico Dancers from the PCS Annual Reunion 1996
(© P. Truxton-1996)

For more more photos on polleras and typico dance ensembles, visit
Conjunto Nuevo Milenio
Parade of the 1,000 Polleras - June 2004

A photo postcard taken of a float during Carnivál, a yearly celebration.

(Photographer "Foto Flatau")
(courtesy of Nina K.)

"Christi" (granddaughter of
Al Garrett, in her pollera)

More photo postcards (Courtesy of Dino B.)
(Distribudora Lewis)


(Foto Flatau)

(Jose Angel Murillo)

(Foto Flatau)

(Ruben Flores Ulloca)


Many thanks to Nina K. and Dino B. for submitting most of the photos on this page.


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